8. Functional Costs
Under the cost of sales method, functional costs incurred by the operating functions are determined on the basis of cost center accounting. The functional costs particularly contain the personnel costs, depreciation and amortization accumulated on the underlying final cost centers as well as allocated costs within the cost accounting cycle. Operating expenses that cannot be allocated to the functional costs are reported as other operating expenses.
Cost of sales
Cost of sales includes all production and purchase costs of the company’s own products as well as merchandise that has been sold in the period, particularly plant, energy and personnel costs.
Selling expenses primarily include marketing and advertising costs, freight costs, packaging costs, distribution management costs, commissions and licensing costs.
General administrative expenses
General administrative expenses include the costs of the Corporate Center, of general management, the Board of Executive Directors and the Supervisory Board. They also include the costs of managing operating divisions and business units as well as the costs of the supporting services in departments such as accounting, legal, taxes and controlling.
Research and development expenses
Research and development expenses include the costs resulting from research projects as well as the necessary license fees for research activities.